Skip to main content

Three Simple Frameworks for Feedback

Here at Floop, we’re all about creating effective feedback systems that mix different strategies to best meet your students’ needs. This post is part of a series sharing simple feedback strategies.

When giving or receiving feedback, using a structured framework helps keep the feedback constructive and balanced. Here are three of my favorite feedback methods, all of which are general enough to be used for any situation.

Blog Graphics 2-1

Plus (+) / Delta (Δ)

Pluses are positive things to keep or repeat, while deltas (the Greek character often used to represent change) are changes to make in the future. To use the plus/delta framework, create a T-chart to log pluses and deltas. Here’s the key: deltas must be action-oriented, meaning they are positively framed actions versus negative complaints. A simple example is when giving feedback on student presentations, say “please speak louder” instead of “you’re mumbling.”

I like…, I wish…, What if…

To use this feedback method, list praise with “I like…,” criticism with “I wish…,” and then suggestions with “What if…” For the same example of student presentations, you could say “I like how fluid your presentation felt. I wish I could hear you better! What if you practiced projecting your voice to the back of the room?” (Note: Likes don’t need to match wishes, but wishes should match what-ifs.) Starting your likes and wishes with the word “I…” helps frame your feedback as personal observations and opinions, which in turn makes the feedback easier to accept by the feedback recipient. Then, having the “what if” column encourages you to think constructively about how to turn critique into a suggestion.

I likeI wishWhat if (1)

Strengths, Weaknesses, Questions, Ideas (SWQI)
Organize your feedback into these four quadrants: Strengths, Weaknesses, Questions, and Ideas. In this comprehensive method, there is a place for any kind of feedback you have, and seeing the feedback written on paper encourages you to provide a wide range of feedback.


I confess that when I printed these out for my classroom, I changed the word “weaknesses” to “what could be improved.” Are you cautious about using the word “weakness”? How do you perceive this word, and how do your students perceive it?

How I use these frameworks

The power of these frameworks is in their flexibility for feedback on any assignment, activity, or situation. In addition, they can be used in a multitude of ways, from structuring a group discussion or organizing written feedback. Here are just a few ways I use these methods in my classroom:
  • When students assess each other’s notebooks, they leave a sticky note with a plus/delta T-chart.
  • After students present in small groups, other students give feedback verbally using “I like..., I wish…, What if…” as sentence starters.
  • When visitors come to my classroom to watch student presentations, I have a stack of SWQI forms printed and ready to go.
  • After completing a design challenge, students complete an individual plus/delta reflection in their own notebooks.
  • For teacher feedback, when I complete a unit, I facilitate a class conversation around plus/delta and fill out the T-chart on the board.
What are your go-to frameworks for feedback? How do you make sure you’re providing balanced feedback to students? How do you help students give meaningful feedback to each other and to themselves?

Keep us in the Floop!


Popular posts from this blog

Part 2 - Tools for an Equitable Feedback System: Engaging with Criteria

This series of posts will cover a variety of bite-sized strategies that can be incorporated into a more holistic feedback system. To learn more about the research behind these approaches, we recommend you first read our white paper.

Part 1 - Feedback is Emotional

For feedback information to be useful, it must communicate:  Where am I going? (What are the goals?)How am I going? (What progress is being made toward the goal?)Where to next? (What activities need to be undertaken to make better progress?) (Hattie & Timperley, 2007).  Supporting students in engaging with the grading criteria helps give context to the feedback to come. In other words, it does the groundwork of helping them determine for themselves, "Where am I going?"

Floop Team & Dr. Naomi Winstone: What does the research say about feedback best practices?

Over winter break, Floop co-founder Melanie and I had the privilege of talking with prominent feedback researcher Dr. Naomi Winstone. Her research has discovered that feedback interventions all seem to target at least one of four metacognitive skills, described by the SAGE process, and hypothesizes that a holistic approach to developing feedback systems should target all four of the skills: Self-Appraisal: judging one's abilitiesAssessment Literacy: understanding the grading process, standards, and criteriaGoal-Setting & Self-Reflection: being goal-oriented and monitoring progress to meet outcomesEngagement & Motivation: having an attitude of receptiveness to performance information Essentially, for feedback to reach that level of effectiveness that we've heard from experts like Hattie & Timperly, students need to be motivated to engage with feedback and have the feedback literacy skills to use it, and the instructional environment must give them the agency to act …

Peer Feedback on Student Presentations: Use Roles for Better Feedback and Engagement

When students provide feedback to each other on presentations, do you wonder:
How do I help students give each other meaningful feedback?How do I keep all students engaged during presentations and presentation feedback? One solution to both of these challenges is assigning feedback roles.
Roles during practice presentations For team presentations, I have students practice and give feedback with another team. For the team presenting, all team members stand and present as if it were the real thing. For the team giving feedback, each person focuses on a different aspect of presentation feedback. Here are roles I've used for 3-4 people teams:
Content - Provide feedback on the content of the presentationPresentation Skills - Observe and provide feedback on presentation skills and slide designTimer - Write down the times for each part of the presentation (or video tape it!) If you provide each role feedback guidelines, like a checklist, questions, or rubric, it can help students give each…